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  The maps and the Historical Description of fray Pedro González de Agüeros: Last shreds of the Chiloe´s missionary cartography in the XVIII Century. (Part 2)

6. The Maps of the Chiloe Archipelago by Fray González de Agüeros

The historian Isidoro Vázquez de Acuña, says that in each authority, missionary or explorer who settles 
in Chiloé, exists a kind of telluric impulse that “makes them interested in the archipelago and its people, 
beyond the fulfillment of their mission” ((Vázquez de Acuña, 1988:8)[1] Pedro González de Agüeros 
was not unaware of this spell and years later, in 1789, physically far from the archipelago, he offered 
the Minister of the Indies to write a Description of Chiloé, fundamentally motivated by the cartographic
 tradition developed in the college of Ocopa.  This proverbial habit, had its origin in the establishment
 of new missions that went into the Amazon jungle and where it was reached by lost roads.
 To rationalize the travel records, maps began to be drawn in the convent. Friar José Amich,
 a Barcelonan, pilot of the Royal Navy, introduced Cartography in Ocopa in 1747. He also worked
 rebuilding the fortress of Callao, after the 1746 earthquake. Amich enters the Ocopa school around 
1750, being also its first historian. The historian Mrs. Carmen Montaner says that through these maps
 the Franciscans “provided for the first time graphic information of unknown territories for the
 Crown”, and that the King of Spain began to say "thanks to the Franciscan missionaries, graphic
 information of a territory that belonged to him, but he ignored"  the maps, adds Mrs. Montaner, 
"constituted an important proof of justification of the missionary work of the Franciscans of Ocopa 
to the King, their main sponsor" These maps were copied in Ocopa and sent to the Viceroy of Peru 
and the King of Spain. Therefore, they are mainly preserved in the documentary repositories in Spain. 
(Montaner, 2018:4).
      A recent publication by Professor David Rex Galindo, refers to the writings of González de Agüeros, showing him as an advocate of the Bourbon reform program on the borders, where the missions of the Ocopa college were located, and how these missions and their missionaries were "institutions of the imperial expansion, colonization and evangelization" strengthening Hispanic rules in the Bourbon period. The author says that González de Agüeros echoed this in his studies, as evidenced by the letters and reports reserved for the Council of the Indies and the monarch; where the religious pragmatist tunes the reformism of the Bourbons. Rex points out that the work of González de Agüeros offers "a perspective of the dynamics that, both locally and globally, affected the southernmost peripheral regions of Spanish America at the end of the 18th century" (Rex, 2020:156).
7. The Maps
 There are three maps of the Province of Chiloé made by González de Agüeros:
a. The first, dated 1785, is a sheet of 29x42 centimeters with a box formed by a thick red and blue
 line that distinctly mark the quarters of a geographical degree in both, latitude and longitude. In the
 lower right corner,, a box with the signature of the drawing "Map of the Province of Chiloé in the 
Kingdom of Chile and the number of its inhabitants"; in the same box the number of inhabitants of 
each parish and its head is indicated. For the contours of the coast, a double gouache line of almagre
 and blue color was used, it has a marked scale of ten leagues; relief is shown with shaded hills. The
 original is in the Archivo General de Indias, Seville, signed as
 ES: 41091. AGI/MP-PERU-CHILE 222.
b. Also dated in 1785, the map entitled "Description of the Province and Archipelago of Chiloé, in the kingdom of Chile and Bishopric of La Concepción": It is a  29 x 42 centimeters sheet with slight differences in the outline of the coasts of the previous map , it does not indicate reliefs, the color of the lines in almagre with a blue gouache. The scale is 10 leagues, it has a yellow box with a lower tricolor line that divides each parallel into sixths. The toponymy is similar to the previous one. The original that González de Agüeros calls Map No. 5, is in the Royal Academy of History in Madrid and has been published in volume 5 of the History of the Franciscan Missions in Eastern Peru, from which we extracted the fragment of the figure 2 below.

Fig. 2 Fray Pedro González de Agüeros´ Map  Legend: “Descripción de la Provincia y
 Archipiélago de Chiloé, en el reino de Chile y Obispado de la Concepción”. (1785[1]).
c. A third map, the most widespread of all, is the printed Geographical Map, contained in the Historical Description Book. Its size is 51 x 71 cm, and it was engraved by Francisco Ugena. On page 248 of the Description, the author says that it was made according to a map that was sent to King Carlos III by the Viceroy of Peru in 1752. It is likely that such map was made by Mateo Abraham Evrard, an Englishman residing in Chiloé (Vázquez de Acuña, 1988). From a brief reading of the graph of this map we point out: It has an outer box where the parallels and meridians are indicated; It ranges from 41°25" - 43°22" south latitude and 72°20”- 74°” west longitude. The scale is 20 leagues per degree. On its upper right corner, a poster leafily framed by laurels, in the upper part, the coat of arms of Bourbon Spain with palms and laurel branches and a lower oval with the Coat of Arms of the Order of San Francisco.The north is indicated with the lis needle, located to the East of the Big Island. The town of Castro in the center, appears hierarchical with a tower and a farmhouse; the ports are marked by an anchor: the toponyms of the chapels are shown in a small circle, the fortresses are small circle with four stems and a banderole; the shoals are dotted and the reefs marked with crosses. Small shaded lines indicate the topography of the land, the forests are represented by trees and the elevations of the terrestrial relief by hills shaded to the south; such as the Guanaca Volcano (today Calbuco,) and the hills of the Cordillera de la Costa called the Cucao Tits.
8. The Cartographer and Map No. 5
The first map of Chiloé that González de Agüero developed contains the 
entire Province and the Archipelago, he drew it according to the observations
made on the islands and their populations during his residence in that place.
He did the observation work downton the city of Castro, located in the middle
of the Big Island and from that place he took the directions of all the islands
and towns. Resident on the Island of Quenac, from there, he observed the
situations of the the islands Meullín, Quenac, Quinchao, Linlin, Linao, Las
Chauques islands; those of Alao, Apiao and Cahulinéc: Later, by order of the
Viceroy of Lima, he became the Royal Chaplain of the Port
of Plaza de San Carlos, taking charge of the Port and Fort of Chacao. In his
four years of residence, he studied the conditions of the Port of San Carlos
and its entire coast, including the Teque and Aguí fortresses. He also visited 
Carelmapu and the Maullín Fort, located on the mainland.
He traveled by sea with the Governor from San Carlos to the city of Castro,
Chonchi; taking notes of the coasts and the islands of Lemuy, Chelín, Quegüi
and Imelec; He also traveled to all the islands and towns of the Partido de
Calbuco to the North of Castro: and with all this information he drew Map No.
5; later, consulted the pilot Francisco Machado, it was included in the general
maps of South America, and in
particular, on the map that Francisco Noriega drew from Callao to Chiloé in
1779; "I placed the islands in their respective directions, according to
the compass rose with the needle placed in the city of Castro, giving variation
to the Northeast", he says. Then he arrived at the Court, drew two Maps of
the Archipelago, sent them for consultation to the franciscan priests José
Tortosa and Narciso Villar, who had been in Chiloé and knew the entire
Archipelago and its populations, while exercising their ministry in the
circular mission. The responses of the priests proved that the map represented
what they saw and observed there (Izaguirre, 1923).

Fig. 3 Fray Pedro González de Agüeros: "Mapa de la provincia y archipiélago de Chiloé, en el Reino de Chile, Obispado de la Concepción, de la Orden de San Francisco, ex-Guardián del Colegio de Ocopa, en el Perú, Arzobispado de Lima, dedicado a nuestro Católico Monarca Don Carlos IV"

9. Viscissitudes
In 1971 Agüeros obtains from the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies 
and the Court, the license to print his Historical Description of Chiloé.
He had previously submitted his manuscript to the Royal Academy of History
 by order of the Monarch. The academics made slight recommendations about
 his work, but authorized its publication, "to clarify to a large extent 
the geography of a little-known Country and whose well-observed products 
will contribute to the promotion of our construction and commerce” 
(Vásquez de Acuña, 1988: 22).
Once the authorization was obtained, Pedro González de Agüeros again requested authorization to add an extract from a Franciscan expedition to Tahiti. Once the permission was obtained, it also included the Diary of the pilot Francisco Machado's expedition to the Guaitecas and Guayaneco Archipelagos; which caused a serious incident for the circulation of the book. This, due to the fact that Machado's story had not circumvented the censorship of the Royal Academy of History, nor of other competent authorities. What had happened? As soon as the books were published by the famous Benito Cano´s  publishing house , Agüeros sent some copies to members of the royal family and ministers of State. In the Court an intemperate alarm was unleashed by the fear that the English would find out about the few and simple news that the Spanish sailor declared. The Supreme Board of State, as in a reverse of irony for the Inquisitor of Books, ordered to suspend the publication and sale of the Historical Description; apart from asking the author for the number of copies published and to whom they had been distributed. Gozález de Agüeros presented a protection appeal, in which he demonstrates the little importance of Machado's document, realizing that the cited data were widely known by the enemies of Spain; and that they had even better and more exact directions on the coasts of southern Chiloé. Therefore, in a new analysis, the ban was lifted.
As Agüeros had witnessed some negative practices of the Chiloé´s administration, he sent the King several files with reserved documentation, in which he expressed the monarch information that had not been published in the Description, because he did not want it to be of public knowledge. "A real patriot", as Vázquez de Acuña says.
 10. Final Comments
 Thanks to the work of González de Agüero, the cartographic work of 
the Franciscans in Chiloé has been fruitful. Since, through the 
publication of his Historical Description and the printed Maps he
 attached, Chiloé began to come out of anonymity, as well as, they 
left an important legacy of great historical value.


1.- GONZÁLEZ DE AGÜEROS, Pedro (1791): Descripción historial de la provincia y archipiélago de Chiloé, en el reyno de Chile,

y obispado de la Concepción. Madrid: Imprenta de Don Benito Cano

2.- GUARDA, Gabriel y MORENO Jeria, Rodrigo (2008): Monumenta Cartographica Chiloensia: Misión, territorio y defensa 1596-1826 Santiago de Chile. Corporación Amigos del Patrimonio Cultural de Chile. 2008

3.- IZAGUIRRE, Bernardino O. F. M (1923): Historia de las Misiones franciscanas en el oriente del Perú Tomo Quinto 1782-1792. Lima

Talleres Tipográficos de la Penitenciarìa.

4.- MORENO Jeria, Rodrigo (2013): “Los franciscanos de propaganda fide en Chiloé colonial” : Revista Archivum Año X Nº 11 p. 307-316

5.- MONTANER, Carme (2019): “Dibujos figurativos en los mapas de los franciscanos de Ocopa (Perú) de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII”:  Geocrítica. Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales Universitat de Barcelona 

Vol XXIV N° 1264 Recovered from

6.- REX Galindo, David (2020): “Imperio desde los márgenes: Un estudio de la obra de fray Pedro González de Agüeros y sus planes

reformistas de las fronteras del sur de la América meridional a finales del siglo XVIII”. IN: Anuario de Historia de América Latina

N° 57 pp. 153-189

7.- TAMPEEduardo (1981): Tres siglos de misiones en Chiloé. Santiago Editorial Salesiana

8.- URBINA B., Rodolfo (1990): Las misiones franciscanas de Chiloé a fines del siglo XVIII: 1771-1800 Valparaíso

9.- VAZQUEZ DE ACUÑA, Isidoro (1988): González de Agüeros, Pedro: Descripción Historial de Chiloé. Introducción y notas de Isidoro Vásquez de Acuña Santiago Instituto de Investigaciones del Patrimonio Territorial de Chile.

[1] Translated by Jeannette V. Ortíz 

[2] The "Cuarto de Indias"  Headquarters of the General Commissioner of the Indies of the Franciscan

Order of the Convent of San Francisco el Grande in Madrid.

[3] Don Isidoro Vazquez de Acuña was the biographer and editor  of Fray Gonzàlez de Agüeros in the

publication of the facsimile´s re-issue containing a documentary appendix of the Historical Description

carried out by the Chilean Territorial Heritage Research Institute. Santiago 1988

[4] Insert in: History of the Franciscan Mission in Eastern, Peru - Volume V 1782-1792 (1923)
[5] National Library of Chile 


 The maps and the Historical Description of fray Pedro González de Agüeros: Last shreds of the Chiloe´s missionary cartography in the XVIII Century.

 José Mansilla-Utchal Almonacid

Master in History UJI Es

Industrial Engineer IACC Chile


After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Chile, the Chiloe´s catholic missions were served by Franciscans from Santa Rosa de Ocopa (Perú).  The Company of Jesus had evangelized, using the “circular mission”; an annual tour around the islands, with priests who traveled whether, on foot or in fragile boats to serve their parishioners.

 To reinforce its presence and domain in the Archipelago, the Franciscans will continue this practice and also the use of cartography for their missionary activities, so as to control the missionary spaces. Friar Pedro González de Agúeros arrived to Chiloé in 1771.  During his 6 years of permanence in the province, he acquired knowledge about the insular reality and reflected it in the maps and his text Historical Description.  One of the maps was attached to the Description, whose publication in 1791, resulted in serious inconveniences to  the Supreme State Board, which ordered its suspension, because it could contain information on the southern territory; therefore, could be used by the enemies of Spain.

 In these maps, there is a return to the primitive cartography. However, the geographical space of the Archipelago, provides González with an amount of data, cataloged and described in the Description.  The text developed from the observation practice, also tries to understand the borderland reality, which became the greatest articulation of the chilote space.

 Key words:

 Chiloé, González de Agüeros, Cartography, Franciscans.

1. Introduction[1]

The topic of this study is an approach to the cartographic work carried out by the Franciscan missionary Pedro González de Agüeros, related to Chiloé and originated in Chiloé during his stay in the Archipelago between 1771 and 1777 and later, developed in Madrid with intermittence periods, over the last decades of the XVIII century. This is made up of the production of some Maps of the Archipelago and the text on the Province Historical description and Archipelago of Chiloé published in 1791, being this, the only book published on the Archipelago in the XVIII century.

Chiloé, a strategic point on the western flank of the South Pacific, located on the periphery of the Spanish Empire, with the maze of islands and its rugged coastal geography,was of great importance for the first expeditions, as well as the subsequent occupation by Europeans. Due to its proximity to the Strait of Magellan, it was a natural inter-oceanic gate; so, its location was relevant for the defense of the viceroyalty of Peru, as well as the entire Pacific coast, against threats to the Spanish Crown´s enemies. This explains in some way, the robust cartographic documents, existing about Chiloé during the Hispanic period. Chiloé was also the first human settlement found in those latitudes.

The island started to appear on the general maps of the continent, by the beginning of the XVII century, a draft of its costs, which is a cartographic testimony of the devastating dutch corsair invasion commanded by Baltazar de Cordes (Guarda et al, 2008).

The Cartography production has a strategic origin, carried out by foreign spies and hispanic explorers who appeared sporadicly visiting the southern part of Chile, with the only intention to invade the territory. Long lists were found of land and sea explorations towards the South and East outskirt lands of the archipelago. Soldiers, austral aborigene, missioners, sailed from Gran Island to recognize the territory, participating in these activities under the supervision of the chilean government and vicerroyalty or expedtions held by the local island authorities.

The elements or instruments used to produce the field cartographic elaboration differ in quality and technical accuracy – from the most sophisticated- used by Malaspina- to the most rudimentary used by the missioners and José de Moraleda, himself.

 2. Missional Cartography

 The ecclesiastical presence with franciscan priests and mercedarios was seen from the beginning of the hispanic settlement in Chiloé. Later, in the first decade of the XVII century with the arrival of the Jesuits, a fruitful evangelizador work will be deveoped in the Archipelago. The Jesuits established a singular evangelizing system: the circulating mission.  The missional center was located in the little village in Castro. From that place, rowing fragile boats: the dalcas chilotas, or simply going on foot, two priests sailed on ship covering almost 75 chapels spread over the territory; from september to the end of may, next year. The Jesuit evangelists remained for 3 or 4 days or a week carrying mobile altars with its religious images used to celebrate their religious ceremonies, teaching the Christian Doctrine, administrating sacraments, training the fiscales encharged of the chapels, and even settling disputes among the indigenous.  Their mission was also to annually register the number of indios, birth registration, marriages and deaths in every place they visited. The tour ended when the winter rains did not allowed to walk throughout the islands and channels. (Tampe, 1981).

To recognize the coastal routes, the Jesuits drew numerous maps containing important information contributing to the geographical knowledge of Chiloé. In 1646, Priest Alonso de Ovalle published a map of Chiloé with a quite real image of the territory.  As Ovalle never was in Chiloé, his maps must have been based on the previously existing maps of the epoch (Guarda et al, 2008).  It is presumed that all these important cartographic documents were stored in the Jesuit School in Castro; probably lost with the Jesuits expulsion from the country; only a few maps dealing with the evangelist-related mission of the Jesuits have been preserved.  

 3. Pedro González de Agüero and the Franciscan Presence in Chiloé.

 After the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Hispanic domains in 1768, the hispanic Crown urgently seeked for replacing the missioners, in order to deal with the native, mestiza, creolé population, and inhabitants scattered all over this region.The strategic importance of Chiloé was a great concern to the chilean and peruvian authorities. For that reason, after the expulsión of the Jesuits, at request of the Obispo de Concepción, it was ordered to replace them by the Franciscans of Colegio de San Idelfonso de Propaganda Fide from the city of Chillán.  However, their presence could not be sustainable and, in 1771, they left Chiloé; finally, they were replaced by the franciscans of Colegio de Propaganda Fide de Santa Rosa de Ocopa, Perú (Urbina, 1990).

On november 4th,1771, fifteen priests and seculars sailed from El Callao, peruvian port  heading to Chiloé, arriving at San Carlos (currently Ancud), on December 17th.  In tis place, head of the province government, Governor Carlos de Beranger assigned them the missions, which had been hosted by the Jesuits, transferring rooms and churches to the new misioners.  The new franciscans came from Ocopa – from Jauja – they found a poor territory, mostly native inhabitants, spread throughout the coasts and a rigurous climate, windy with heavy rains.

Besides, the isolation and uprooting of a territory incommunicated with the Spanish domains most part of the year, the difficulties shown by this southern reality increased. For these peruvian friars, to be a missioner, was not an easy task under these circumstances.

The pastoral scenario assumed by the friars in Chiloé counted on 81 chapels, spread along the east coast of Isla Grande, 26 on the islands of the interior sea, plus Tierra Firme de Carelmapu and Calbuco (Moreno, 2013).

 4. News from Fray Pedro González de Agüeros

 Among the franciscans commissioned to Chiloé, we find our character Pedro González de Agüero, who was destined to te Isla de Quenac. He came from Avila, became a priest of the Franciscan Order in Province of Seráfica de la Concepción de Castilla la Vieja. He arrived in Perú in 1768, Missioner in Lima, preacher of the Lent in the Lima´s cathedral, and then to Pampas; Jaujas, the following year, from there, assigned to Chiloé in 1771, he stayed on the Archipelago for six years, as per declarared himself in various official documents. In 1777 is assigned as Procurator of Missions in Perú, living in the Covento Máximo de Jesús en Lima. On June 29th, 1780, was elected Guardián del Colegio de Propaganda Fide de Santa Rosa de Santa María de Ocopa, responsible for the convent´s repair. In 1783, appointed Columnist to the Convento and Comisario del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición position held from 1784 to 1788.  Returned to Spain in 1784 as Procurator of the  Colegio de Ocopa and Comisario Conductor de Misioneros.  He requested in 1790, the Santo Oficio to be appointed Examiner, that is to say, the theologist encharge of censuring books and theological proposals.The latest reference we have on him is his “Reason of the missions I have worked for serving the religión and the State, from 1785, time I got to this Court”, signed “Cuarto de Indias”[2] in San Francisco de Madrid, on January 5th, 1794 (Izaguirre, 1923).  It is believed that he passed away circa 1800.

 5. González de Agüeros’s documental and representative work  

 In the practice of his priesthood, Pedro González de Agüeros remained in different chapels located on the islands of the interior sea, sporadicly in the Castro village, San Carlos de Ancud and in the adjacent territories to the latter village.  This situation, along with the privileged condition of being Royal Chaplain, allowed him to have access and be in knowledge of many echlesiastic, administrative, military and statistics issues about the Province; information and data used to spill in his works, published in Spain; as well as those reports he wrote  confidentially for the Royal and Supreme Consejo de Indias y la Corte.  On the document, year 1794 already mentioned, he briefs about his works on geographical kowledge he had accumulated and the mapoteca resulting from his stay in América.

The summary of the works described, whether, the published or the unpublished, appearing on Fig. 1 are:  In 1786 presented to the Supremo Consejo His work titled “Colección general de las expediciones practicadas por los religiosos de la provincia de Lima and my school de ocopa in Perú, in which he requests the conversion of the gentiles, with description of the situation of that school as well as his missions; showing 7 maps and the reports given by the misioners dead in the hands of the unfaithful for complying such holy ministery, it also includes the collection from 1645 to 1784 dedicated to N. Señor”.  The originals of this work are currently in the Royal Academy of History in Madrid and volumen 5 of the History on Franciscan mission in Eastern Peru has been partly published; written by Friar Bernardino Izaguirre. In 1789 written The Chronological Line is from 1789 by RRmos. Comisarios Generales de Yndias and the plan of the provinces with their convents and schools as well as Missionires and the number of souls in his charge,m my seraphic religion has…, this work dedicated to the King N. Señor.  In 1791, he published with the Royal Permission  another work entitled Apostolic Clamors to the religious of my Order in those provinces of Spain, requesting evangelical workers, who were reluctant to go to the Missions in Yndias to work in the conversión of the gentiles. In 1792, with the Royal Permission, he published in print, his monumental work, entitled Historical Description of the Chiloé Archipelago Province, which included the maps o all its islands and ports.

 His cartographic work, declared by himself, includes the following maps: 1) Coast from Callao de Lima at 12 degrees to Chiloé, at 44 degrees, showing of all its main ports. 2) Ports of Concepción and Valdivia 3) Departments of the Ocopa missions, divided into 7 parts 4) Part of the bishopric of Huamanga and the new Gentile missions established in 1782. These maps were delivered to the Marquis of Bajamar being secretary of state and also, to the Office of Grace and Justice. 5) of 1793, another map which included the entire bishopric of Chile, indicated the locations of the missions of Chillán and Chiloé, which he delivered to the Secretary of State Dn. Pedro Acuña. (Izaguirre, 1923).

Fig. 1 Cover of the two works by de Fray Pedro González de Agüeros:  Descripción Historial de la Provincia y Archipiélago de Chiloe and Clamores Apostólicos (National Library of Chile)


domingo, marzo 27, 2022


 NOTA de C. C. C:

Desde hace un mes los Medios de Desinformación Masiva han escalado con las "noticias" de la Guerra en Ukrania. De las miles de imágenes con que la llamada "prensa libre" de "occidente" nos bombardea, gran parte de ellas son tomadas de video juegos, de otros conflictos, o sencillamente mal usando las imágenes del asimétrico bombardeo del ejército uraniano y las bandas fascistas contra los ukranianos de la región del Donbast. Muy pocos son los periodistas que no sucumben al embrujo fácil y cobarde de la mentira criminal que llega hasta ofender la razón, con frases  clisé repetidas hasta el hartazgo. Bueno para eso les pagan.....para mentir. 

Uno de estos valientes periodistas, que mantiene la objetividad, en un plano de racionalidad y explicacion de los hechos; en medio de la vorágine hipócritazante,  es nuestro coterráneo D. Pablo Cofré. De él, tomamos este trozito de verdad, que flota en memdio del Mar de las Mentiras de Occidente y la publicamos, ya que expresamente dice que se puede reproducir citando la fuente. Fué publicado en la página web de la Radio Universidad de Chile. "La Estrella de Chile" 

Je ne suis pas ukrainien

Columna de opinión por Pablo Jofré

Miércoles 23 de marzo 2022 12:42 hrs.


Periodista Chileno  D. Pablo Jofré.

    La maquinaria política-mediática de occidente muestra todo su poder de fuego y nos quiere hacer ondear banderitas bicolores, iluminar la Torre Eiffel, el Opera House de Sídney, los hitos monumentales con los colores de Ucrania y prender chapitas con un corazón, situándonos y haciéndonos creer, con la manipulación y la desinformación, que estamos con el régimen de Kiev en una especie de Je Suis Ucrania. Pues no, desde este lado, no.

    La repetición constante de noticias no comprobables, de la estrategia de manipulación y desinformación aceitada por décadas tiene a parte del mundo tomando como colores preferidos la bandera bicolor ucraniana como si ello representara el sumun de la defensa de los pueblos. La operación política militar especial de la federación rusa en Ucrania tiene objetivos precisos: desnazificar y desmilitarizar ese país. Advertido por Rusia desde hace ocho años a la fecha si continuaba el exterminio de la población del Donbás, llevado a cabo por las fuerzas ultranacionalistas de corte nazista, desde febrero del año 2014. Ocho años de abusos y maltratos por parte del gobierno de Kiev, que han tenido su respuesta a partir del 24 de febrero pasado cuando Rusia comenzó su operación militar  destinado a impedir la labor de exterminio de Kiev contra la población del Donbás, así como llevar a la justicia a los que hayan cometido los numerosos y atroces crímenes contra los habitantes de Ucrania, entre ellos: Ucranianos,  rusos y habitantes rusoparlantes de la zona donde se han creado las repúblicas Populares de Donetsk y Luganks. Regiones donde las fuerzas criminales ucranianas han generado 14 mil asesinados, mucho de los cuales son menores de edad.

    La información obtenida de fuentes militares rusas consigna, que en el marco de la operación militar especial las fuerzas Armadas de Rusia operan con rigor, para así evitar el daño a la población civil o al menos minimizar ese daño, que en ocasiones es complejo, pues las fuerzas paramilitares y militares como es el caso del batallón ucraniano de ideología Azov que opera en la ciudad de Mariúpol realiza sus acciones  en medio de la población civil o derechamente impidiendo la salida de la población por los corredores humanitarios. Las acciones criminales de las fuerzas ucranianas- que no aparecen en los informativos occidentales que hegemoniza el mensaje – han generado violaciones a los derechos humanos, masacres de la población civil, documentadas por Rusia, presentadas a organizaciones defensoras de derechos humanos pero que han sido ignoradas por el vocerío cómplice de los países occidentales aliados del gobierno de Volodimir Zelensky.

    Desde el inicio de la operación militar especial rusa, han sido evacuadas 200 mil personas desde las zonas en conflictos en el Donbás, de las cuales más de 50 mil son niños. En distintas partes de la federación rusa funcionan más de 7 mil puntos de alojamiento temporal, donde se otorga asistencia médica necesaria y los niños acuden a sus clases. Con la participación de la Cruz Roja de Rusia se han realizado 62 acciones humanitarias en las regiones de Kiev, Járkov, Jersón, así como en las repúblicas populares de Lugansk y Donetsk. Rusia ha sostenido, permanentemente, su plena disposición a declarar el alto al fuego y organizar los corredores humanitarios. Las fuerzas rusas han cumplido con todas las condiciones que había presentado la parte ucraniana en los diálogos destinados a obtener un cese al fuego, en términos de cronograma, rutas seguras y seguridad en general, anunció 10 nuevas rutas seguras. Vías de evacuación que entraron en acción a partir del día 10 de marzo pasado.

    Esta postura rusa tiene su contrario absoluto en las fuerzas ultranacionalistas ucranianas: Azov, Dnipro, Aidar, Centuria, Pravy Sektor que significan la presencia de 100 mil efectivos de los más extremistas dentro de Ucrania y con un porcentaje muy amplio de mercenarios entrenados principalmente por potencias como Estados Unidos, Francia y Gran Bretaña. Fuerzas, que parecen estar aparentemente fuera del poder central y que usan el alto al fuego, exclusivamente para reagrupar sus unidades, efectivos y equipo militares en localidades bajo su dominio para después acusar a las fuerzas rusas de ataques, sabotajes y acciones contra la población civil. Diversos medios muestran la acción militar rusa con uso de armas de alta precisión contra un centro comercial reconvertido en almacén militar en Ucrania y así reconocido incluso por internautas ucranianos, mostrando que las fuerzas ultranacionalistas usan como refugio sitios civiles en violación a los acuerdos internacionales de no utilizar centros civiles que se convierten así en blancos militares (1)

    Las cifras entregadas por el ministerio de defensa de Rusia dan cuenta del daño significativo que las tropas rusas están causando a las fuerzas ucranianas en materia de bajas y destrucción de material militar, aeródromos, blindados, infraestructura logística de tropas. El representante oficial del ministerio de defensa de la federación de Rusia, Igor Konashenkov, anunció el uso exitoso del sistema de misiles hipersónicos de aviación Khinzahal (daga) para destruir el depósito subterráneo de armas y municiones de las Fuerzas Armadas de Ucrania en la ciudad de Delyatyn (en la región de Ivano_Frankivsk) y un gran almacén de combustible y lubricantes en la localidad de Konstantinovka, en el sur de Ucrania. Las fuerzas armadas rusas han utilizado los misiles de crucero Kalibr, para aniquilar el centro de entrenamiento de nacionalistas ucranianas y mercenarios extranjeros en la ciudad de Yavorov (en la región de Lvov) como también en la región de Zhitomir, en el noroeste de Ucrania.

    A contrapelo de lo que sostienen los mass media occidentales las fuerzas armadas rusas – utilizando tácticas de combate a distancia sin contacto – siguen atacando metódicamente las instalaciones militares críticas de las fuerzas armadas de Ucrania, cuya ausencia priva de sentido a la resistencia adicional del personal militar ucraniano. Los casos de transferencia de soldados y personal de las fuerzas armadas ucranianas a la región controlada por Rusia, para su rendición voluntaria se han hecho cada vez más frecuentes. El estado de ánimo decadente, la desmoralización de los combatientes ucranianos formales – parte del ejército – se debe, sobre todo, al temor de ser asesinados por los nacionalistas, que han prometido liquidar a todo aquel que deserte. Rusia ha entregado información a organismos internacionales – lógicamente no difundidas por occidente – que existe una parte importante de bajas debida a la acción extremista en las propias filas ucranianas de tal forma que los sitios de fosas comunes que han sido exhumadas crecen día a día.

    Los nacionalistas ucranianos bien saben que su combate implica el uso de métodos contrarios a las llamadas leyes de la guerra. Moscú ha denunciado reiteradamente que los nacionalistas ucranianos están utilizando instalaciones civiles: áreas residenciales, sociales, como sitios donde desplegar sus armas y posiciones de tiro, poniendo en riesgo a la población civil, que obliga a Moscú a exigir a los organismos internacionales para que presionen al gobierno ucraniano, el evitar ocultarse entre la población civil. Todo esto, ha hecho declarar a las autoridades rusas que existe la inevitabilidad del justo pago, que tendrán que cumplir los líderes políticos y militares ucranianos por los crímenes de guerra cometidos, contra la población civil del Donbás, contra las fuerzas rusas y contra sus propios efectivos.

    El análisis político-militar, desde todos los ángulos, incluyendo el occidental, nos indica que el aumento en la intensidad del uso de armas de alto poder de fuego por parte de las fuerzas armadas de la federación rusa indica, que en el corto plazo, una operación militar especial entrará en su fase final, signado por el traslado de los principales ataques rusos al territorio del oeste de Ucrania, éxitos en Mariúpol y bloqueo del cerco del Donbás. En este contexto el régimen cívico-militar ucraniano sigue una política de desinformación al mundo, mediante la manipulación de datos sobre el número de militares muertos de las fuerzas armadas nacionales ucranianas y las fuerzas armadas rusas. Todo ello apoyado por los mass media occidentales que han generado una narrativa antirrusa.

    En estas condiciones, según los expertos franceses en el medio “Vu Du Droit” (2) los países occidentales cegados por su propia propaganda y la de Ucrania pretenden “martirizar” y presentar como héroes a las fuerzas armadas de Ucrania elevando a Zelensky incluso a la condición de candidato al premio nobel de la paz lo que terminaría de hundir un premio que ya ha tenido premiados que han sido responsables de agresiones, invasiones, ocupación y colonización de territorios. Además, los columnistas han constatado la ineficacia de las sanciones internacionales y el pretendido aislamiento internacional contra la federación rusa. Sanciones, bloqueos, embargos, amenazas, chantajes son estériles frente a la decisión rusa, sin duda alguna, de llevar a todos los cómplices del régimen nazi ucraniano a responder de sus crímenes, con todo el peso de la ley, que no pueden seguir ocultos por un occidente que esconde sus propias responsabilidades en la actual situación en Europa oriental.

Pablo Jofré Leal
Artículo Para Segundo Paso Cono Sur
Permitida su reproducción citando la fuente.



jueves, marzo 10, 2022


                                                                                                      Autor: Profesor Milton Vivar Diaz 


Transportaba pasajeros, Productos Alimenticios, Materiales de Construcción, Menajes de Casa, Vestuario, Frutas y Verduras y otros productos destinados a los Puertos de su Ruta desde Puerto Montt, regresando con Pasajeros y productos de la Zona Austral. Entre los más destacados: Ganado, Productos Agrícolas y Marinos. 

Habiendo cumplido su vida útil en el Cabotaje, fue retirado de este Servicio, para ser puesto en Remate por la Empresa a que pertenecía, cuya adjudicación fue favorecida a la Conservera Calbucana: CABRERA – DITZEL, ubicada en Avenida Brasil, quienes además eran Propietarios de las embarcaciones de madera “JORGE 2º” y “APOLO”. 

Una vez posicionado “EL DALCAHUE” en el Sector de La Vega, en Avenida Brasil, fue habilitado para ser transformado en UNA FABRICA CONSERVERA FLOTANTE, aprovechando que aún se encontraba útil la Máquina a Vapor que servía para su propulsión y calefacción. Terminadas las instalaciones, incluidas las habitaciones para el personal manufacturero, fue trasladado hasta PUERTO AGUIRRE, en la Región de AYSEN, siendo remolcado a su lugar de destino por las embarcaciones APOLO y JORGE 2º.
Una vez anclado el Dalcahue en Puerto Aguirre, inicia sus actividades Conserveras, puesto que con anterioridad se había preparado Personal manipulador para servicios menores, toda vez que el Personal Técnico llegaba desde CALBUCO. 
A corto plazo, pudo ya comprobarse un favorable rendimiento, lo que incluía un completo proceso, hasta el encajonado, listo para el despacho hacia otras latitudes, conservas que eran transportadas hasta Calbuco por El Apolo y La Jorge, amén de los cargamentos de cholgas a granel que debían ser procesadas en CALBUCO.
Esta industria flotante, llega a transformar el Sistema de Vida de los habitantes de aquella alejada región, toda vez que absorbe y propicia una nueva mano de obra.

¿Pero será el destino de Calbuco ser siempre presa de los incendios?. Estando ya el Dalcahue en plena producción, se produce un lamentable incendio, que acaba con la industria flotante calbucana, dejando con mucho dolor a una gran cantidad de habitantes de Puerto Aguirre, sin mano de obra, como lo fueron Buzos y Personal Asistente, Desconchadores, Recolectores de Orilla y Personal Manipulador de la Fábrica, incluyendo el Comercio Local. 

Una vez repuestos de tan fatal accidente, EL DALCAHUE es remolcado de nuevo, pero esta vez hacia CALBUCO, quedando fondeado en LA VEGA, frente a la Conservera, adyacente a lo que hoy es LA MUTUAL DE SEGURIDAD. 

Establecido en su fondeadero, EL DALCAHUE, vuelve a prestar servicio, ahora a modo de Pontón, en donde servía de Maestranza y Bodega para almacenar las Conservas elaboradas en tierra, para luego ser transportadas para su despacho en las recaladas en Calbuco de los Buques o Motonaves “NAVARINO” y “VILLARRICA”, con rumbo a VALPARAISO.

Más tarde “EL DALCAHUE”, es desguazado, y todo lo que fue maquinaria y armazones de fierros siniestrados se vendieron como Fierros Viejos para una Fundición.


Por último, con el pasar del tiempo, abandonado a su suerte, luego de haber soportado las diferentes inclemencias del tiempo, la corrosión del mar y la fuerza del viento SUR, revientan sus amarras y su destino lo transporta a morir en la playa, en el lugar en donde hoy se encuentra, llamando la atención, como observando si alguien se interesa por conocer su pasado, como mudo testigo del IR y DEVENIR de los transeúntes que desconocen su pasado. 

Vivardi 13.9.2021